Increase in student dropouts lends a certain sense of institutional urgency as students who drop out of schools and colleges suffer personal disappointments, financial setbacks, and a lowering of career and life goals. Likewise, attrition results in the waste of university resources - human and financial, both of which are limited in today's time. Furthermore, attrition can impact the reputation of the institution, creating long-term implications for new student enrollments. Student success and retention, therefore, matter to both institutions and students.
Student engagement represents both the time and energy students invest in educationally purposeful activities and the effort institutions devote to using effective educational practices (Kuh et al 2008: 542).
Accordingly, all aspects including academic challenge, learning experience, campus environment, and, most importantly, student-teacher interaction contribute to enhanced student engagement.
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